Transforming Growth Factor-Signaling in Bladder Fibrosis.

Govindaraj Anumanthan, John C Pope IV


In human tissues, normal homeostasis requires intricately balanced interactions between cells and the network of secreted proteins known as the extracellular matrix. These cooperative interactions involve numerous cytokines acting through specific cell-surface receptors. When the balance between the cells and the extracellular matrix is perturbed, disease can result. This is clearly evident in the interactions mediated by the cytokine transforming growth factor-(TGF-. TGF-signaling has been studied extensively in fibrotic disease of lung, liver, skin, and kidney. However, little is known about the role of TGF-in bladder fibrosis. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying TGF beta expression and how it relates to fibrotic processes in bladder.


Full Text: